Modularization and scalability
Modular, containerized, and standardized components will help to reduce the costs for CCS. It will allow smaller emitters to decarbonise cheaper and easily than now. Modular solution is fast and scalable, and could be pre-fabricated off-site, and then deliver for installation on-site. The effect of scale on capture cost can see significant capture plant cost savings (per tonne of CO2 captured) when moving from small scale to full scale installations capturing millions of tonnes of CO2 per year.
New solvents for absorption
Traditional amine-based solvents have two main disadvantages, namely solvent degradation with time and high energy consumption for CO2 release. Solvents with better characteristics have been developed to address those issues. As a traditional amine-based solvents could be corrosive for industrial plants, another way for improving technology is to create a water-free solvent.
The polymeric materials encompass ether oxygen-rich polymers, polynorbornenes, ionic liquid membranes, and facilitated transport membranes. Membrane separation is low-energy consumption process. Multi-stage processes are needed, because a single-stage process can’t achieve a high degree of purity.